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The Botanicam Glossary

Anandamide (AEA)

  • An endocannabinoid
  • The “bliss” molecule
  • Activates the CB receptors/fuels the endocannabinoid system

  • CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme, which breaks down anandamide

Anslinger, Henry

  • Led the prohibition of the cannabis sativa plant in the 1930s

Antioxidant

  • Inhibits oxidation
    • Too much oxidation = free radicals
      • Free radicals = damage to the cells of the body.

Bioaccumulator

  • Accumulates substances in soil, such as pesticides or toxins, and cleans the soil of them

Bioavailability

  • Percentage of drug absorption with consumption

Broad Spectrum

  • Full spectrum (a whole plant product) with the THC completely removed

Cannabinoid

  • Chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors in the body

  • There are endocannabinoids (made by the body), phytocannabinoids (made by plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (made in a lab)

Cannabis

  • Of the cannabis sativa plant family
  • The plant with high levels of THC (psychoactive properties)
  • Cousin to the hemp plant

CB 1 Receptor

  • The primary cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system

  • There are high levels of CB1 receptors in the brain, but they can also be found throughout the body (in the adrenal glands, adipose tissue, heart, liver, lung, prostate, uterus, ovaries, testes, bone marrow, thymus, and tonsils)

CB 2 Receptor

  • The peripheral cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system

  • Not expressed in neurons as CB1 is

  • Primary expressions are in the immune system, but are also found in bones, the GI system, and microglia of the central nervous system

Central Nervous System

  • Through the brain and spinal cord, this system brings together information that comes from every part of the body and coordinates actions

Certificate of Analysis

  • Results of lab tests performed to determine the chemical makeup of a specific batch of product, including potential toxins

Cellular Health

  • The level of health that the molecules which make up the cell (proteins, mitochondria, and DNA) are functioning at

Chronic Disease

  • A persistent disease/condition

Chronic Stress

  • A high level of stress experienced over a substantial amount of time where a person feels little to no control

Comorbidity

  • 2+ chronic diseases/conditions occurring at the same time

Depleted Endocannabinoid System

  • An endocannabinoid system which lacks the amount of cannabinoids sufficient to fuel the system

DuPont Cellophane Company

  • First company to bring cellophane to the U.S., which was set to become the standard packaging for nearly all American products

  • Feared that hemp fiber would compete against cellophane-based products such as synthetic nylon and rayon

Endocannabinoid

  • The cannabinoids endogenously made by the body

Endocannabinoid Deficiency

  • When the body lacks enough cannabinoids to turn on the CB receptors and, therefore, the endocannabinoid system cannot function properly

Endocannabinoid System

  • The system, fueled by cannabinoids, that brings the body to homeostasis

Enzyme

  • Molecules that accelerate chemical reactions inside of the body

  • FAAH and MAGL are the 2 key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system

Extraction

  • The process of separating a desired cannabinoid from the others

FAAH

  • The enzyme of the endocannabinoid system that breaks down anandamide

Flavonoid

  • Gives the plant its pigment/color, blocks UV rays, deters predators, and attracts pollinators

  • For humans, they are great antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties

Free Radicals

  • Unstable atoms inside of the body that can damage cells, which may lead to both illness and aging

  • Excess free radicals trigger more inflammatory pathways

Full-spectrum

  • Whole plant products

  • Full Spectrum CBD products contain a maximum of 0.3% THC

Hearst, William Randolph

  • The head of the newspaper business and owner of many paper mills who feared hemp as a competing paper source

  • Printed a variety of propaganda against hemp in his newspapers

Hemp

  • A strain of the cannabis sativa plant
  • Cousin to the cannabis (marijuana) plant
  • Contains high concentrations of CBD and low concentrations of THC
  • The fiber of the cannabis plant can be used to make rope, strong fabrics, fiberboard, and paper

Hemp Extract

  • A CBD oil

Hemp Oil

  • An oil without any cannabinoids, terpenes, or flavonoids, but many essential fatty acids (like olive oil)

The Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis

  • Plays a key role in our stress response system

Homeostasis

  • The balance in the body which is maintained by physiological processes

Isolate

  • One cannabinoid is extracted from the rest of the plant

MAGL

  • One of the 2 key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system

Mellon, Andrew

  • Secretary of the Treasury (head of all financial matters in the U.S.), the wealthiest man in the U.S., and a man who was substantially invested in nylon (DuPont’s new synthetic fiber)

  • Thought that the success of nylon was dependent on the eradication of hemp (the traditional fiber) as competition

Modulate

  • To regulate.

Neuropathic Pain

  • Pain caused by damage to the body

Pathways (ex. allergic, inflammatory)

  • A series of actions taken by the molecules in a cell which lead to physical changes in the cell

Peripheral

  • Outside of the spinal cord and brain

Phytocannabinoids

  • The cannabinoids produced by the cannabis sativa plant
  • 113 cannabinoids have been found in the cannabis plant so far
  • CBC (Cannabichromene)
    • Binds with receptors in the body besides the CB receptors
    • Potentially beneficial in treating depression, acne, cancer, brain health, pain, and inflammation
  • CBD (Cannabidol)
    • Increases the levels of anandamide
    • Promising benefits include (needs further research) antiepileptic, sedative, antipsychotic, and anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in tumor cell lines

  • CBG (Cannabigerol)
    • Potentially useful for the immune system, reducing inflammation, as an antibacterial agent, and shows promise for glaucoma and cancer treatments

  • CBN
    • Is created by the breakdown of THC in older flowers

    • May ​also have anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic properties

    • To be confirmed, needs further study
  • THC (Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol)
    • Responsible for the “high” provided by cannabis
    • Activates the CB1 receptors
    • Pain relief /relaxant
    • May help with PTSD, Insomnia, Inflammation, Nausea, Migraines, Crohn’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and more

Physiology

  • The organic chemical processes of the body

Phytoremediation

  • The (hemp) plant cleans the soil by removing all of the toxins

Plant Compounds

  • The chemical compounds of the plant

Receptor

  • These initiate the chemical responses that lead to cell growth, division, and death

  • They convey signals throughout the body

Rockefellers

  • Of standard oil, feared hemp as a competing fuel

Synergy

  • When the whole plant works together to create maximal therapeutic benefits

Terpenes

  • Terpenes create the aroma of a plant and provide many health benefits

  • Beta Caryophyllene:
    • Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, binds to CB2 receptors, protects cells living in the digestive tract

  • Humulene
    • Promising benefits include anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pharmacokinetic properties

  • Limonene
    • Contains promising abilities to work with acid reflux, anxiety, and depression

  • Linalool
    • Contains promising abilities as an anesthetic, anti-convulsant, analgesic, and anxiety reliever

  • Myrcene
    • Contributes to the sedative effects of indica strains of cannabis, a sleep aid and muscle relaxant

  • Pinene
    • Contains anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, memory aid, and anti-bacterial properties

Whole plant extract

  • An extract that does not remove specific cannabinoids

2-AG

  • 1 of the 2 key enzymes in the endocannabinoid system

3rd Party Testing

  • When the makeup of a company’s product is tested for plant compounds and toxins by a 3rd party lab