The Botanicam Glossary

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glossary

A

An endocannabinoid. The “bliss” molecule. Activates the CB receptors/fuels the endocannabinoid system CBD inhibits the FAAH enzyme, which breaks down anandamide

Led the prohibition of the cannabis sativa plant in the 1930s

Inhibits oxidation. Too much oxidation = free radicals. Free radicals = damage to the cells of the body.

B

Accumulates substances in soil, such as pesticides or toxins, and cleans the soil of them

Percentage of drug absorption with consumption

Full spectrum (a whole plant product) with the THC completely removed

C

Chemical compounds that act on cannabinoid receptors in the body. There are endocannabinoids (made by the body), phytocannabinoids (made by plants), and synthetic cannabinoids (made in a lab).

Of the cannabis sativa plant family. The plant with high levels of THC (psychoactive properties). Cousin to the hemp plant

.The primary cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system. There are high levels of CB1 receptors in the brain, but they can also be found throughout the body (in the adrenal glands, adipose tissue, heart, liver, lung, prostate, uterus, ovaries, testes, bone marrow, thymus, and tonsils)

The peripheral cannabinoid receptors of the central nervous system. Not expressed in neurons as CB1 is. Primary expressions are in the immune system, but are also found in bones, the GI system, and microglia of the central nervous system.

Binds with receptors in the body outside of the CB receptors

Potentially beneficial in treating depression, acne, cancer,brain health, pain, and inflammation

This cannabinoid is a key in the entourage effect’s ability to facilitate mood regulation (THC + CBD + CBC = mood regulation).

CBC for the brain? It is great asset to optimal neural functioning, as it defends against inflammation, oxidation, and toxicity. CBC fosters neural stem progenitor cells working more effectively. These are the most important cells for maintaining brain homeostasis because they turn into astroglial cells. These cells prevent oxidative stress, inflammation, and toxicity in the brain. This is extremely important if a person has a predisposition to neurological diseases. Additionally, CBC is known for its antidepressant properties.

Prevention for the cells? Just after CBG, CBC is the second most potent fighter against malignant cell formation-this is an extremely powerful discovery, not only to heal the sick, but also to utilize as an important preventative measure before the cells have become oxidized and malignant.

CBC for the gut? Studies have concluded that CBC plays an important role in normalizing food digestion. An Italian study Inhibitory effect of cannabichromene, a major non-psychotropic cannabinoid extracted from Cannabis sativa, on inflammation-induced hypermotility in mice by Izzo, AA, et al. found that, in rats, CBC normalized gut motility, but not through the endocannabinoid system. Rather, this is achieved by influencing mRNA expression of TRPV1 receptors-this is why further studies are needed. Perhaps this is a doorway into what the entourage effect and these less abundant cannabinoids are all about. The endocannabinoid system is amazing and potent, but it is still shrouded in mystery.

For acne? Many blemishes are created by excess sebum production and sebaceous gland inflammation. Luckily, CBC works with the cannabinoid receptors that help regulate these glands and their chemical productions.

Is CBC for me? CBC is for those looking to regulate the gut and prevent issues, especially of the gut and brain, before they occur. Perhaps those with a family history of cellular malignancies, brain deterioration, or mental health issues may seek this cannabinoid especially.

Increases the levels of anandamide and 2-AG

Promising benefits include (needs further research) antiepileptic, sedative, antipsychotic, and anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in tumor cell lines

What does it do? This is the most prominent cannabinoid in any hemp strain, and thank goodness. The way this molecule influences the chemistry of the body is nothing less than a blessing from nature. This cannabinoid can help those struggling with stress, convulsant behavior, pain, blemishes, and malignant cellular formations, as well as those who need neuroprotection, and more! It is really a tiny pharmacy within one chemical of a plant!

Is CBD for me? Yes! CBD helps regulate the endocannabinoid system. This is the system of the body that regulates all of the other systems. Disease forms when systems of the body get out of balance and dysregulated, But CBD is there to make sure that activity at a cellular level is balanced. CBD is amazing for the sick and for preventing any problems from forming.

What is it? CBDA is the raw form of and the antecedent to CBD. When CBDA is heated or exposed to sunlight (or enough time has simply passed), it converts to CBD. This is why CBDA is found in capsules, tinctures, and topicals-i.e., products that are not heated or smoked.

How does CBDA work? Instead of binding directly with the cannabinoid receptors, CBDA inhibits the COX-2 enzymes. These enzymes are associated with inflammation after either injury or infection. This is how CBDA reduces pain by healing the body.

What's cool about CBDA? It is a more bioavailable cannabinoid! It has an enhanced effect and its presence enhances the effectiveness of all other cannabinoids present. Additionally, research has shown that CBDA is more effective than CBD when it comes to convulsions and malignant cell migration (especially of the breast).

Reduce the nausea? Studies have illustrated that CBDA is not only good at reducing nausea, but it is particularly good at reducing medically induced nausea and vomiting.

CBDA for the mind? CBDA affects the body’s serotonin receptors. Now, we all probably know that dopamine receptors are for pleasure, and that dopamine is the chemical that THC releases. Serotonin receptors are somewhat similar, but serve a different purpose; serotonin is for satisfaction and happens to be the chemical released by magic mushrooms (think less pleasure, more contentment). Excess serotonin can actually produce nausea and vomiting—luckily, the endocannabinoid system is all about balance, so by stimulating it and its connection to these receptors, we aim to maintain an optimal amount of serotonin production (not too much, not too little).

Is CBDA for me? CBDA would be for you if you suffer from nausea, vomiting, convulsions, or unpleasant cellular migrations and formations (especially of the breasts).

What does it do? This is an ideal phytocannabinoid to help control convulsant behavior! Along the same lines, this is a wonderful cannabinoid for those with impairment to optimal brain function. Many of the bodily functions are controlled by the mind-this cannabinoid helps the body run effectively by helping to smooth neural synapses.

Is CBV for me? If you have neural problems that translate to physical ailments and issues, especially convulsant ones, this would be the cannabinoid you seek!

Potentially useful for the immune system, reducing inflammation, as an antibacterial agent, and shows promise for glaucoma and cancer treatments

How does CBG work? Both CBD and CBG have 65 known targets outside of the endocannabinoid system. This means that modifying the endocannabinoid system is only a small portion of the action these compounds take in the body. There are other chemical activities these cannabinoids stimulate, such as expression of glycine, GABA, GPRSS, 5-HTIA & HT2A, PPAPy, adenosine, opioid, and GPR18 pathways to name a few. CBG is especially known to turn on serotonin feedback. Cannabinoids help the body produce its own serotonin, unlike medications, which produce serotonin for the body, causing the body to think “oh, we have enough!” and stop producing serotonin on its own.

What does it do? This cannabinoid is particularly interesting because it has shown to be especially effective in reducing pressure around the eyes. We know that there are cannabinoid receptors around the eyes-perhaps these are some of the receptors that CBG works with! It is also an asset in matters of blood pressure and neuroprotection.

CBG for the gut? A study by Francesca Borrelli, et al., called Beneficial effect of the non-psychotropic plant cannabinoid cannabigerol on experimental inflammatory bowel disease, found that CBG has the ability to reduce a dysregulation of intestinal microbial communities through first, reducing nitric oxide production in macrophages (the main player in chronic gut inflammation), and, second, lowering the ROS formation in the intestinal cells (an overproduction of Reactive Oxygen Species in the cells can create many physiological and pathological conditions, including conditions of the gut).

CBG for neuroinflammation? Current literature suggests that it is extremely important to continue studying CBG for neuroinflammatory complications. Due to this cannabinoid’s ability to protect neuronal cells from an overactivated PPARγ, a release of inflammatory mediators in microglial cells is inhibited. This interaction with the spine and the brain is how cannabinoids are able to modulate pathophysiology, such as in the case of those who suffer from losing control of the body, or those with impaired coordination.

What is this cannabinoid most famous for? CBG is extremely well known to help those suffering with pressure on the eyes and issues around the eyes. Additionally, it is seen as the optimal cannabinoid to retain health at a cellular level, especially in terms of reducing malignant cell growths.

Is CBG for me? CBG would be for you if you have problems with the eyes, gut, brain, or unpleasant cellular migrations and formations (of the bowel, rectum, or colon).

The “Mothership” Cannabinoid (Cannabigerol Acid)

What is it? Without this phytocannabinoid, there would be no others! CBGA is known as the "mothership" of the phytocannabinoids due to the fact that it is a precursor to THCA, CBCA, and CBDA (which are the precursors to THC, CBC, CBD, and all the rest). The cannabinoid that CBGA will convert into depends on which plant enzymes are activated during synthesis.

What does it do? CBGA can help with comorbidities and complications in disorders relevant to the heart or blood sugar, or more specifically, complications that lead to oxidative stress. Also, by stimulating the lipid metabolism and reducing excess lipid accumulation, CBGA can be a great asset in the regulation of the metabolism. This phytocannabinoid can also be extremely helpful in maintaining healthy cellular activity of the bowels, rectum, and colon (especially the colon).

What does it do? CBN is known for its sedative properties and is particularly effective when used in combination with cannabinoids such as CBD and THC. It is a really great cannabinoid to help combat pain, and might relieve those with staph infections! Finally, it may have anti-seizure, anti-inflammatory, and antibiotic properties, but this needs to be confirmed with further scientific study.

Fun fact: this was the first cannabinoid to be discovered!

Is CBN for me? If you want to regulate your sleep, work with pain, or have a staph infection, this might be your kind of cannabinoid!

Through the brain and spinal cord, this system brings together information that comes from every part of the body and coordinates actions

Results of lab tests performed to determine the chemical makeup of a specific batch of product, including potential toxins

The level of health that the molecules which make up the cell (proteins, mitochondria, and DNA) are functioning at

A persistent disease/condition

A high level of stress experienced over a substantial amount of time where a person feels little to no control

2+ chronic diseases/conditions occurring at the same time

D

An endocannabinoid system which lacks the amount of cannabinoids sufficient to fuel the system

.First company to bring cellophane to the U.S., which was set to become the standard packaging for nearly all American products. Feared that hemp fiber would compete against cellophane-based products such as synthetic nylon and rayon.

E

The cannabinoids endogenously made by the body

When the body lacks enough cannabinoids to turn on the CB receptors and, therefore, the endocannabinoid system cannot function properly

The system, fueled by cannabinoids, that brings the body to homeostasis

Molecules that accelerate chemical reactions inside of the body. FAAH and MAGL are the 2 key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system

The process of separating a desired cannabinoid from the others

F

The enzyme of the endocannabinoid system that breaks down anandamide

Gives the plant its pigment/color, blocks UV rays, deters predators, and attracts pollinators. For humans, they are great antioxidants with anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties

Unstable atoms inside of the body that can damage cells, which may lead to both illness and aging. Excess free radicals trigger more inflammatory pathways

Whole plant products. Full Spectrum CBD products contain a maximum of 0.3% THC

H

The head of the newspaper business and owner of many paper mills who feared hemp as a competing paper source. Printed a variety of propaganda against hemp in his newspapers

A strain of the cannabis sativa plant. Cousin to the cannabis (marijuana) plant. Contains high concentrations of CBD and low concentrations of THC. The fiber of the cannabis plant can be used to make rope, strong fabrics, fiberboard, and paper

An oil without any cannabinoids, terpenes, or flavonoids, but many essential fatty acids (like olive oil)

Plays a key role in our stress response system

The balance in the body which is maintained by physiological processes

I-N

One cannabinoid is extracted from the rest of the plant

One of the 2 key enzymes of the endocannabinoid system

Secretary of the Treasury (head of all financial matters in the U.S.), the wealthiest man in the U.S., and a man who was substantially invested in nylon (DuPont’s new synthetic fiber). Thought that the success of nylon was dependent on the eradication of hemp (the traditional fiber) as competition

To regulate

Pain caused by damage to the body

P

A series of actions taken by the molecules in a cell which lead to physical changes in the cell

Outside of the spinal cord and brain

  • These are the cannabinoids produced by the cannabis sativa plant; some examples would be CBD, CBG, CBN, THC, etc!
  • 113 cannabinoids have been found in the cannabis plant so far

The organic chemical processes of the body

The (hemp) plant cleans the soil by removing all of the toxins

The chemical compounds of the plant

R-W

These initiate the chemical responses that lead to cell growth, division, and death. They convey signals throughout the body

Of standard oil, feared hemp as a competing fuel

When the whole plant works together to create maximal therapeutic benefits

  • Terpenes create the aroma of a plant and provide many health benefits

  • Beta Caryophyllene:
    • Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, binds to CB2 receptors, protects cells living in the digestive tract

  • Humulene
    • Promising benefits include anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and pharmacokinetic properties

  • Limonene
    • Contains promising abilities to work with acid reflux, anxiety, and depression

  • Linalool
    • Contains promising abilities as an anesthetic, anti-convulsant, analgesic, and anxiety reliever

  • Myrcene
    • Contributes to the sedative effects of indica strains of cannabis, a sleep aid and muscle relaxant

  • Pinene
    • Contains anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, memory aid, and anti-bacterial properties

Responsible for the "high" provided by cannabis

Activates the CB1 receptors

Pain relief /relaxant

May help with PTSD, Insomnia, Inflammation, Nausea, Migraines, Crohn's disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and more.

This will not get you high! Because this is the acidic form of THC, it does not produce psychoactive activity. If heated (perhaps smoked or cooked), this cannabinoid turns into THC, and then, yes, you will be high—but not from the low amounts in the hemp plant. Hemp legally cannot have more than 0.3% THC, so there is no need to avoid this highly medicinal molecule!

What does it do? It is an anti-inflammatory agent, antiemetic (prevents nausea/vomiting), and is extremely helpful in preventing malignant cellular formations

Is THC/THCA/THCV/D9THC/D8THC for me? If you are looking to seriously boost the medicinal and therapeutic benefits of your CBD regime, a tincture that includes any form of THC can be a powerful ally to healing. It is especially important for those who suffer from nausea, vomiting, and malignant cellular growths.

An extract that does not remove specific cannabinoids

1 of the 2 key enzymes in the endocannabinoid system

When the makeup of a company’s product is tested for plant compounds and toxins by a 3rd party lab